About Kip Hanson

Kip has worked in manufacturing, management and IT since 1979. He began freelance writing in 2010, and today has more than 350 published articles covering a range of topics, including machining, fabrication, metrology, software and hardware systems, 3D printing, materials and cutting tools.

A Cloud-Based Future for 3D CAD

3D CAD Design software is increasingly moving to cloud-based models, greatly benefitting product developers and manufacturers alike.

The tools available to designers have changed mightily over the last few decades. Long gone are drafting boards, replaced by progressively more intelligent software and cloud-based collaboration platforms. This new and improved design landscape offers designers, engineers, and OEMs lower development costs and faster time to market, and is an integral part of any digital manufacturing environment.

What’s new in computer-aided design (CAD)? Plenty. Pick any leading CAD software on the market today: Aside from greater intelligence, usability, mobility, and a plethora of cool features that were unavailable even a few years ago, virtually all providers offer or will soon offer cloud-based deployment for their customers.

Case in Point
One of these is PTC Inc., developers of the Creo design suite, WindChill PLM, and a range of other manufacturing software solutions. Paul Sagar, PTC’s vice president of product management, said his company will be offering cloud versions of many of its products by year end, and that moving to the cloud is a logical step for companies struggling with routine maintenance of large software deployments, or needing to invest in new hardware every few years. “High-end cloud solutions eliminate all that effort and expense, while still providing the power associated with on premise CAD installations,” he explained. That power is about to get much stronger as PTC and other CAD providers tighten their embrace of digital manufacturing. For example, ThingWorx, PTC’s industrial internet of things (IIoT) development platform, has been adopted by General Electric and others as part of an industry-wide push toward smarter shop floors, more connected CAD systems, and greater transparency throughout the supply chain.

“From a design perspective, the IIoT and digital manufacturing are going to significantly change the way we do things,” Sagar said. Currently, “we design products in a vacuum. We start with a basic set of requirements, collate whatever historical knowledge is available, and then make assumptions. Those assumptions might cost the business a lot of money.” Continue reading

3D-Printed Molds vs. Aluminum Tooling

Industrial 3D printing has made a tremendous impact on the manufacturing world. Rapid prototypes are possible within a day, material selection continues to grow stronger and parts with un-manufacturable designs have found their happy place. Recently, some companies have begun using this important technology to produce injection molds.

Molds made with thermoplastics-based 3D printing are kind of like the plastic storage sheds some of us put in our back yards. They’re a little cheaper than metal sheds. They go up quickly and are fine under light loads. Pile too much snow on them, however, and they’ll collapse like a house of cards.

A 3D-printed Digital ABS mold built in an Objet Connex machine.

Still, printed molds have their place, and some shops have had good success with them. Proponents argue that 3D printing produces molds up to 90 percent faster and 70 percent cheaper than using traditional moldmaking processes. And while this may be true in some circumstances, it’s important to understand the pros and cons of printed plastic molds compared to those machined from metal.

Quality is king. 3D printing builds parts in layers. Because of this, printed parts can exhibit a stair-step effect on any angled surface or wall. Printed molds are no different, and require machining or sanding to remove these small, jagged edges. Holes smaller than 0.039 in. (1mm) must be drilled, larger holes reamed or bored, and threaded features tapped or milled. All of these secondary operations eliminate much of the “print-to-press” speed advantage associated with printed molds.

Size matters. Part volumes are limited to 10 cubic inches (164 cm3), roughly the size of a grapefruit. And although modern additive machines have impressive accuracy, they cannot compete with the machining centers and EDM equipment at Proto Labs, which routinely machine mold cavities to +/- 0.003 in. (0.076mm) and part volumes up to approximately 59 cubic inches, about six times larger than parts made with 3D printing.

The heat is on. To make material flow properly, injection molding requires very high temperatures. Aluminum and steel molds are routinely subjected to temperatures 500°F (260°C) or greater, especially when processing high-temperature plastics such as PEEK and PEI (Ultem). Aluminum tools can easily produce many thousands of parts, and can also serve as bridge tooling until a production mold is available. Molds produced with SL and similar 3D printing technologies use either photoreactive or thermoset resin, which is cured by ultraviolet or laser light respectively. These plastic molds, though relatively hard, break down fairly quickly when subjected to the demanding thermal cycles of injection molding. In fact, printed molds typically become ineffective within 100 shots of soft, hot plastic such as polyethylene or styrene, and may produce only a handful of parts from glass-filled polycarbonate and other tough thermoplastics.

Continue reading

13 Cosmetic Defects and How to Avoid Them

As with any manufacturing process, injection molding comes with its own set of design guidelines, and design engineers who understand these best practices will increase their chances of developing structurally sound and cosmetically appealing parts and products.

Learn about different cosmetic issues that commonly occur on injection-molded parts, and how to eliminate them to improve overall part appearance and performance. This month’s tip discusses sink, warp, flash, knit lines, drag, vestiges, jetting, splay and other cosmetic issues.

Read the full design tip here.