UL 94 Classification and Flame-Retardant Thermoplastics
UL 94 is a plastics flammability standard released by the Underwriters Laboratories (USA). The standard classifies plastics according to how they burn in various orientations and part thicknesses from the lowest flame-retardant to most flame-retardant in six different classifications.
|UL 94 Rating||Definition of Rating|
|HB||Slow burning on a horizontal part|
|V-2||Burning stops within 30 seconds on a part allowing for drops of vertical flammable plastic.|
|V-1||Burning stops within 30 seconds on a vertical part allowing for drops of plastic that are not inflames.|
|V-0||Burning stops within 10 seconds on a vertical part allowing for drops of plastic that are not inflames.|
|5VB||Burning stops within 60 seconds on a vertical part not allowing for drops of plastic that are not inflames. Test specimens may have a burn-through (a hole may be present).|
|5VA||Burning stops within 60 seconds on a vertical part not allowing for drops of plastic that are not inflames. Test specimens may not have a burn-through (no hole).|
Effects of Flammability
Colorant/Additives: For best results, stick with a base resin with no additives as most additives may not carry a UL rating. If a specific additive is required, you would likely need to work with a compounder that could custom create a flame-retardant blend of the base resin, like color matching, for example.
Part Thickness: UL ratings are measured at various thicknesses and this can drastically change your part’s UL rating. If you were looking for a UL 94 V-0 material for a part with thin or thick walls, as shown in the chart below, your part may fail — so pay close attention to wall thickness and material selection.
|Thickness||Nominal Value Unit||Test Method|
|Flame Rating: UL||UL 94|
V-0-Rated Injection Molding Materials
Protolabs offers select materials that have a UL 94 V-0 rating for injection molding and can always run custom materials with approval. These would likely need to be customer-supplied resins as the demand may not be large enough to be added as a stocked resin. Additionally, our Carbon DLS 3D printing technology provides a flame retardant option: Carbon EPX. This material is flame retardant UL94 V-0 at 2mm thick.
Carbon EPX 86FR is a flame-retardant resin that offers functional toughness, high strength, and long-term stability. It works well in a variety of applications that require UL 94 V-0 or FAR 25.853(a) ratings.
- Flame retardant (UL94 V-0 at 2 mm thick)
- Chemical resistance
|Stocked materials with UL 94 V-0 or greater|
|ABS/PC||Bayblend FR110, Bayblend FR 3010, Cycoloy C2950 and Cycoloy C6600|
|LCP||Vectra E130i (30% glass fiber)|
|PA||RTP 203 FR (20% glass nylon)|
|PBT||Valox 420SEO (30% glass fiber)|
Lexan 940 and Lexan 3412R (20% glass fiber)
Maxxam FR PP 301
Ryton R-4 (40% glass fiber)
Radel R-5000 NT
Material testing must be completed by UL in order to provide the proper “yellow card” as there are many other classifications available. If you have further questions on materials or whether parts meet UL classifications, please contact our customer service engineering team at 877.479.3680 or [email protected].
For more information on thermoplastic material properties in general, read our free white paper: Materials Matter: The Material Selection Process.